Explain photosystem 1 and 2

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This collection has been developed to introduce students to new concepts. By walking through the still images and movie included for each topic, viewers are in control of choosing the learning style that best fits their needs.

Now available on your iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad! Download your free copy of the at the today! Version 1.0 includes stills, movies, text, and quizzes covering Photosynthesis and the Electron Transport Chain.

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The Virtual Cell Animation Collection was featured in Click to read the article and download the included PDF file.

NEW! This overview of the various processes involved in Energy Consumption shows the important connections between the plant and animal worlds. These interrelated events are crucial to the success of life on Earth. More detail...

The Citric Acid Cycle goes by several names, including the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle and the Krebs Cycle. This animation provides a closer look at the eight reactions that make up this important pathway.

In the matrix of the mitochondrion, the Citric Acid Cycle uses Acetyl CoA molecules to produce energy through eight chemical reactions. This animation provides an overview of the pathway and its products.


Glycolysis oxidizes one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate through a series of 10 enzymatic reactions. This animation takes a closer look at those reactions and the enzymes that catalyze them.

Glycolysis is a series of 10 reactions that converts sugars, like glucose, into 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate. This animation provides an overview of the energy consumed and produced by the pathway.

Meiosis is a type of cell division involved in sexual reproduction. It occurs in all plants and animals that reproduce by way of gametes or spores.

      Insulin Signaling

Mitosis is the process of dividing the duplicated DNA of a cell into two new nuclei. Here we look at the stages of mitosis, as well as how the cell finally splits to form two new cells.

Transcription of a gene can occur at varying rates. When a signal from outside the cell changes the rate of gene transcription, this is known as regulated transcription.

When insulin is released into the blood stream, a number of signal pathways are initiated. Here we look at the pathway responsible for increasing the uptake of blood glucose.       Protein Recycling

Certain proteins need to be kept available for quick mobilization when a specific signal is recieved. In this example we see how proteins that allow glucose into a cell are recycled.

During constitutive secretion, proteins are synthesized and moved to the cell membrane without regard to extracellular signals.

In cells using regulated secretion, proteins are synthesized and stored in secretory vesicles at the cell membrane until an outside signal leads to their release.      

Protein modification is the process by which some proteins from the rough ER are altered within the Golgi apparatus in order to be targeted to their final destinations.

Protein trafficking is used to describe the process of moving proteins from the rough ER, through the Golgi apparatus, where they are modified and packaged into vesicles.

Photosynthesis is the means by which plants make use of chorophyll and light to produce energy. This section covers the basic stages in the light reactions of the photo-synthetic electron transport chain.      

Photosynthesis allows plants to use the energy in light to produce molecular oxygen. Photosystem II is the complex where this action occurs.

Once translated, proteins are dispersed throughout the cellular environment. This section covers the transport of a protein into a specific organelle--the mitochondria.

Gradients are used to create energy that can power biological cyles. ATP synthase is powered by a hydrogen gradient, located in the mitochondria. This section covers the action of this specific gradient. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria and provides both animals and plants with the energy needed to power other cellular processes. This section covers the electron transport chain. Transcription describes the process in which mRNA is produced. This section covers the creation of mRNA, as well as the factors leading up to its production. After being transcribed, mRNA is processed. Before mRNA can be spliced, certain features must be added. These alterations are made during mRNA processing. Before being used in translation, mRNA must be spliced. During splicing, introns are removed and the translateable exons that remain are spliced into a single strand of mRNA. Translation is the process in which ribosomes translate a strand of mRNA into a protein. This section covers the steps leading up to the creation of such a protein. The lac operon refers to the gene responsible for digesting lactose molecules in a bacterial cell. This section covers the activation and function of this gene.


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